This indicator uses population trends of selected bird and tree species as a surrogate measure of genetic diversity. Population decreases, especially associated with small populations, can lead to decreases in genetic diversity, and contribute to increased risk of extinction. Many forest-associated species rely on some particular forest structure, vegetation associations, or ecological processes. Monitoring population levels of such representative species will indicate the status of the associations of species associated with specialized conditions. Management use of this indicator will ensure forest health conditions are being monitored and may help avoid species extinction.