In contrast with the days of the early explorers, when wilderness travel in America was predominantly a solitary activity, the wilderness resource is now shared among many interests. Interaction among these various interests leads to varied amounts of conflict. Studies in the United States, conducted in multiple National Wilderness Preservation System units, across geographic regions and across agencies, closely examine the role of behavioral and attitudinal contributors to conflict between hikers and recreational packstock users as a case study conflict situation. A survey of previous literature indicates a lack of consistency in measurement of conflict in past studies. Results from five related studies suggests there are portions of conflict which can be addressed using light-handed, indirect methods such as education and persuasive communication to change behaviors or attitudes of visitors on either side of the conflict. Some contributors to conflict may be better addressed through more direct methods involving regulation and restrictions. Factors besides the conflict between recreational users must be considered in selection of management actions, however. In addition to quality of visitor experiences, preservation and scientific values of wilderness must also enter the decision about appropriate management actions.