The Great Basin is considered to be one of the most endangered ecoregions in the United States (Noss and others 1995, Wisdom and others 2005). The population is expanding at the highest rate in the nation, and major sociological and ecological changes are occurring across the region. These changes can be attributed to numerous interacting factors including urbanization, changing land use, climate change, limited water resources, altered fire regimes, invasive species, insects, and disease. The consequences have been large-scale vegetation type conversions, loss of watershed function, and degradation of stream, riparian, and aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity has decreased, and a high number of species are at risk of extinction or extirpation. Ecosystem services such as water resources for agriculture and fish, habitat for aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals, forage and browse for native herbivores and livestock, and recreational opportunities are rapidly diminishing. These losses have had adverse social and economic impacts on urban, suburban, and rural areas. Managers across the Great Basin are increasingly challenged to maintain or improve the ecological condition of these systems and the services that they provide while meeting the needs of a growing number of user groups with diverse and often opposing interests.