The concept of sustainable management encompasses ecological, economic, and social criteria and indicators (C&I) for monitoring and assessing the association between maintaining a healthy rangeland base and sustaining the well-being of communities and economies. During a series of meetings from 2001 to 2003, the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) developed five criteria and 64 indicators of sustainable rangeland management. The SRR is a collaborative, inclusive organization, comprised of participants representing universities, federal research agencies, federal, state and local land management agencies, tribal governments, scientific societies, and both environmental and commodity-oriented non-governmental organizations. To achieve its goal, the SRR dealt with multiple issues, including those of scale and definitions. The Delphi technique was employed to maintain participant involvement between meetings and to help reach consensus about topics pertaining to the SRR's mission and the various indicators being considered. We used a six-point framework to develop indicators and standardize reporting upon them. One of the factors affecting indicator consideration was potential for obtaining data. To record attributes of various data sets in a way that allows summarizations and comparisons, SRR participants devised a data matrix that considered the kind of data, its grain and extent, applicable spatial and temporal scales, and various aspects of data quality. The SRR coordinated with other C&I programs in developing its suite of indicators. Applications and challenges to employing C&I for monitoring sustainable rangeland management are discussed.