Scientists, land managers, government, and private institutions in the United States have given much attention to invasive control and restoration projects along western rivers; in the West, removal of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk, saltcedar) has been a primary focus of these projects (Dennison et al. 2009; González et al. 2017a; Harms and Hiebert 2006; Shafroth et al. 2008). These trees were first introduced to North America during the 1800s from Eurasia mainly to decrease erosion, to be wind breaks, and to slow down water flow in riparian and agriculture areas (DiTomaso 1998). Since that time, this invasive tree has become the third most common woody species and second highest tree cover in the southwestern United States (Friedman et al. 2005). Despite the fact that invasive plant species removal has long been a priority in restoration of riparian ecosystems (González et al. 2015), we are only beginning to understand the ecological impact of the removal of invasive species from such ecosystems. Here we will provide an overview of Tamarix ecology along rivers in the western United States and the results of our research monitoring plant communities in 25 riparian sites over 3 years, with a particular interest in the results of removal of Tamarix by various methods including biological control by a defoliating beetle.