The High Five symposium is devoted to exchanging information about a small group of pines with little commercial value but great importance to the ecology of high-mountain ecosystems of the West. These High Five pines include the subalpine and treeline species - whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), Rocky Mountain bristlecone (P. aristata), Great Basin bristlecone (P. longaeva), and foxtail (P. balfouriana) - the montane to subalpine pine, southwestern white (P. strobiformis), and the lower treeline to upper treeline pine, limber (P. flexilis). Here, we discuss the taxonomy, distribution, ecology, and Native American use of these pines, as well as current threats and conservation status. Traditional classification places the bristlecones and foxtail pine together in Subsection Balfourianae, limber and southwestern white pine in Subsection Strobi, and whitebark pine in Subsection Cembrae. Whitebark pine has the largest range and most northerly occurrence. The distribution of limber pine is also large, with a wide elevational range.