Restoration and management objectives and approaches are most effective when based on an understanding of ecosystem processes and the long- and short-term causes of disturbance (Wohl and others 2005). As detailed in previous chapters, several factors are critical in developing effective management strategies for streams and their associated meadow ecosystems in the central Great Basin. First, many streams and/or valley floors are still responding to a major drought that occurred almost 2000 years BP that stripped the hillslopes of available sediment and resulted in a natural tendency toward incision. Second, human disturbance has increased both the rate and magnitude of this incision. Since settlement of the Great Basin region in 1860, upland watersheds have undergone significant changes in land use, vegetation cover, and climate that have altered the hydrologic and sedimentologic regimes of the axial drainage system and its associated meadows. Many meadow complexes are at increased risk of incision because they often are located on valley floors with stepped profiles caused by side-valley alluvial fans in the longitudinal profile. While some of the stream systems and their associated meadow complexes have adjusted to the current hydrologic and sedimentologic regimes and are now in a quasi-equilibrium state, others are in a nonequilibrium state and are still actively incising. Consequently, return to pre-incision conditions is an unrealistic goal for these dynamic systems.