The contentious and litigious history associated with managing Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) has focused much research attention toward understanding this species’ life history. Results from these studies address many key information needs that are useful to managers and decision makers, but many pressing information needs exist to address key conservation questions. Our goal was to assess the current state of knowledge in light of recent research. We focused on published information, but we also include unpublished studies if necessary to address key information needs. We included key European studies, for areas where there is little information for North American populations. Based on our assessment of current knowledge, we review goshawk conservation and management in terms of threats, ecological relationships; information needs, survey and monitoring, managing in the face of uncertainty, and the increasing demands for science-based management. We conclude by offering our understandings or qualified insights relative to some of the most salient issues confronting goshawk conservation and management.