The slow growth and long generation time of the five-needle pines have historically enabled these trees to persist on the landscape for centuries, but without sufficient regeneration opportunities these same traits hinder the species' ability to adapt to novel stresses such as the non-native disease white pine blister rust (WPBR). Increasing the frequency of resistance to WPBR is the foundation for options to sustain five-needle pine species in the presence of the pathogen. Depending on the condition of the ecosystems, increasing resistance can be achieved via outplanting resistant seedling stock and/or stimulating natural regeneration (Schoettle and Sniezko 2007). As the objective of management intervention in the high elevation ecosystems is often to promote multiple generations of sustainability, greater understanding of the regeneration cycle and the potential for increasing the frequency of resistance are needed. This is especially critical for the WPBR pathosystem as WPBR kills trees of all ages and therefore impacts multiple stages of the regeneration cycle of five-needle pines.