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An accurate simulation of the sensible heat flux (H) over vegetation from thermal remote sensing requires an a priori estimate of roughness length and the excess resistance parameter kB-1. Despite being the subject of considerable interest in hydrometeorology, there still does not exist a uniform method for estimating roughness length from remote sensing techniques.
In recent years airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has received a great deal of attention. Using airborne LiDAR, analysts have successfully related height measurements to forest characteristics such as tree size, basal area, and number of trees.
Dry mixed-conifer forests are widespread in the interior Pacific Northwest, but their historical fire regimes are poorly characterized, in particular the relative mix of low- and high-severity fire. We reconstructed a multi-century history of fire from tree rings in dry mixed-conifer forests in central Oregon. These forests are dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C.
The number of global initiatives for forest restoration, and the scope of these initiatives, continues to increase. An important tool for meeting objectives of these global initiatives is reforestation, achieved by natural processes or by tree planting. Worldwide, organizations are challenged to most efficiently and effectively direct resources to the most critical reforestation needs.
Wildland firefighters in the United States are exposed to a variety of hazards while performing their jobs. Although vehicle accidents and aircraft mishaps claim the most lives, situations where firefighters are caught in a lifethreatening, fire behaviour-related event (i.e. an entrapment) constitute a considerable danger because each instance can affect many individuals.
Large wildfire events (e.g.>100 square km) highlight the importance of governance systems that address wildfire risk at landscape scales and among multiple land owners and institutions. A growing body of empirical work demonstrates that environmental governance outcomes depend upon how well patterns of interaction among actors align with patterns of ecological connectivity, such as wildfire transmission.
The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, can cause extensive mortality of Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii, during outbreaks. Endemic populations breed in the underside of downed spruces. Outbreaks often develop after blowdowns that create abundant downed trees where beetle populations can increase. Occasionally, managers practice suppression to protect high-value resources.
New technologies may enhance management by enabling quantitative testing of assumptions of vegetation response to climate and management. State-and-transition simulation models can keep track of interactions that are too complicated for us to comprehend using only conceptual models. This tool takes conceptual state-and-transition models to the next level, fostering greater communication and dialogue with stakeholders.
Population growth and climate change will combine to pose substantial challenges for water management in the United States. Projections of water supply and demand over the 21st century show that in the absence of further adaptation efforts, serious water shortages are likely in some regions. Continued improvements in water use efficiency are likely but will be insufficient to avoid future shortages.
Monitoring programs designed to track ecosystem changes in response to both stressors and disturbances use repeated observations of ecosystem attributes. Such programs can increase our understanding of how interactions among resilience to disturbance, resistance to invasive species, and “change agents” including management actions influence resource conditions (or status) and trends and outcomes of conservation and restoration actions.