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The status quo approach of addressing wildfire threat in British Columbia is not working. In 2017, wildfires overwhelmed suppression capabilities, burned 1.2 million hectares, and cost $568 million for suppression and immediate rehabilitation. From 2003 to 2017, the Provincial government spent $3.1 billion on direct fire suppression, but only $73.8 million on proactive fuels mitigation in the wildland-urban interface.
Wildfire risk assessments rely on flame-length probabilities - the conditional probabilities that fire intensity will be within various flame-length classes. The factors affecting flame-length probability include the elements of the fire-behavior triangle - fuel, weather, and topography - plus the orientation of the flaming front relative to the heading direction.
In the Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, appropriation for Interior and related agencies, U.S. Congress established funding and direction to initiate the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP). Federal wildland fire management agencies developed the Joint Fire Science Plan to provide program direction.
A fire regime describes the role fire plays in an ecosystem for a given location and over a specific time period (Agee 1993). The concept is multivariate in nature (Krebs et al. 2010) and therefore is best described by a combination of parameters including fire frequency, severity, extent, seasonality, and relationship with climate.
The adaptive management of forests and rangelands is directed toward achieving an ecologically sustainable landscape that contributes to social and economic sustainability. This “socioecological resilience” is a significant focus of the U.S.
Climate change will influence wildfire on private forest lands via two pathways: (1) changes in temperatures and precipitation will induce direct changes in wildfire likelihood and severity; and (2) changes in management by forest landowners seeking to adapt to climate change will result in shifts in species composition and harvest timing and intensity, which act as additional indirect influences on wildfire.
As described in Chapter 1.1 (Dumroese, this synthesis, The Northeastern California Plateaus Bioregion Science Synthesis: Background, Rationale, and Scope), the Lassen and Modoc National Forests (hereafter the Lassen and the Modoc) share dry pine forestland that was not addressed by two prior science syntheses: Science Synthesis to Support Socioecological Resilience in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascade Range (hereafter, Sierra Nevada Scien
The Frye Fire started June 7, 2017, in the Pinaleño Mountains of southeast Arizona. The Pinaleños are host to important resources and assets including Mount Graham International Observatory, recreation residences, a church camp, Forest Service infrastructure, spiritual significance to tribes, and 11 endemic fish and wildlife species.
As described in Chapter 1.1 (Dumroese, this synthesis, The Northeastern California Plateaus Bioregion Science Synthesis: Background, Rationale, and Scope), the Lassen and Modoc National Forests (hereafter the Lassen and the Modoc) share dry pine forestland that was not addressed by two prior science syntheses: Science Synthesis to Support Socioecological Resilience in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascade Range (hereafter, Sierra Nevada Scien
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) develop when various combinations of a vast array of bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, terrestrial algae, and mosses occupy the surface and upper few millimeters of the soil (Warren et al. 2019b). Historically, BSCs have been referred to as cryptobiotic, cryptogamic, microbiotic, microfloral, microphytic, and organogenic crusts.

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