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The adaptive management of forests and rangelands is directed toward achieving an ecologically sustainable landscape that contributes to social and economic sustainability. This “socioecological resilience” is a significant focus of the U.S.
As described in Chapter 1.1 (Dumroese, this synthesis, The Northeastern California Plateaus Bioregion Science Synthesis: Background, Rationale, and Scope), the Lassen and Modoc National Forests (hereafter the Lassen and the Modoc) share dry pine forestland that was not addressed by two prior science syntheses: Science Synthesis to Support Socioecological Resilience in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascade Range (hereafter, Sierra Nevada Scien
As described in Chapter 1.1 (Dumroese, this synthesis, The Northeastern California Plateaus Bioregion Science Synthesis: Background, Rationale, and Scope), the Lassen and Modoc National Forests (hereafter the Lassen and the Modoc) share dry pine forestland that was not addressed by two prior science syntheses: Science Synthesis to Support Socioecological Resilience in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascade Range (hereafter, Sierra Nevada Scien
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) develop when various combinations of a vast array of bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, terrestrial algae, and mosses occupy the surface and upper few millimeters of the soil (Warren et al. 2019b). Historically, BSCs have been referred to as cryptobiotic, cryptogamic, microbiotic, microfloral, microphytic, and organogenic crusts.
Revisions to forest plans, as directed by the U.S.
The anticipated changes in human populations, natural ecosystems, and the global climate are expected to impact public lands management. Land use is expected to shift due to altered productivity of local ecosystems, to overall increased human population, and to the changing market interests and cultural values.
Ecosystems of the Lassen and Modoc National Forests depend on disturbance as part of the natural process. However, climate change, a source of disturbance itself, has also been changing patterns of other ecological disturbances, including the frequencies and intensities of fire, pests, and pathogens.
The concept of ecosystem services connects the activity of environmental and natural resource management to desired outcomes of human economic utility, social well-being, and cultural health. A desire for mutual sustainability between human interests and ecological cycles is inherent in the ecosystem services approach (Patterson 2014).
Wilderness areas offer value to society as a source of scientific information. We used fire perimeter records from the upper South Fork Flathead River watershed (Montana) to characterize the area burned one or more times during three periods: the pre-fire exclusion period (1889-1934), the fire exclusion period (1935-1980), and the fire management period (1981-2017).
Many of the cultural traditions practiced by Native Americans were channeled from or associated with their experiences with the natural world. These traditions, in turn, served to inform land management practices that effectively maintained a sustainable ecological balance among people and land for thousands of years.

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