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    Author(s): Gary J. Brand
    Date: 1985
    Source: Research Paper NC-261. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
    Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (1.15 MB)

    Description

    Plants are indicators of environmental factors like moisture, nutrients, heat, and light. Semi-quantitative indices for these four factors were developed for 90 Michigan trees and shrubs. The indices and a tally of species present provide a simple evaluation of the environment of a forest stand and a useful management aid.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Brand, Gary J. 1985. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs. Research Paper NC-261. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station

    Keywords

    moisture, nutrients, heat, light, synecological coordinates

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