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    It is generally accepted that large preharvest advanced oak regeneration is required for maintaining a significant oak component in future stands. However, developing advanced oak regeneration on productive sites has been difficult because stand prescriptions encouraging oak regeneration are the same conditions that favor development of potentially faster growing competitor species. It is now practical to produce in the nursery oak seedlings that duplicate the sizes suggested for natural advanced oak regeneration. These large northern red oak seedlings have been successfully established in small research plantations and in harvested stands where they have shown good to outstanding growth. However, they have performed poorly when used as underplanting stock, where the understory has insufficient overhead sun to maintain stem elongation or root growth.

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    Kormanik, Paul P.; Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Kormanik, T.L.; Zarnoch, Stanley J. 1995. Oak regeneration why big is better. Pages 117-123 in National Proc. Forest and Conservation Nursery Assoc., Ft. Collins, CO.GTR-PNW-365.

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