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    Induction of germination in dormant barnyard grass seeds by wounding was investigated. Previous research indicated that a volatile compound was emitted during imbibition of wounded caryopses.When wounded caryopses were submerged in agar, total germination and speed of germination were stimulated, and the stimulation was dependent upon the concentration of agar.A twofold increase in germination occurred in 1% agar versus water, and a fivefold increase with caryopses placed in 5% agar.When wounded caryopses were imbibed, there was a fourfold increase in respiration over half that of intact caryopses after 1 h.This increased rate of respiration of wounded caryopses continued for 7 h, while there was a gradual increase in respiration of intact caryopses.Carbon dioxide induced intact dormant caryopses to germinate but was not effective in stimulating germination of the seed (spikelet). High levels of abscisic acid found in the hulls of dormant seeds may have prevented the action of carbon dioxide.These results suggest that increased respiration resulting from wounding provides elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the microenvironment of the seed, thus stimulating germination.Removal of the hulls is necessary for germination even in high levels of carbon dioxide.

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    Leather, G.R.; Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Hale, M.G. 1992. The wounding response of dormant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) seeds. Weed Science 40:200-203.

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