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Role of the wolf in a deer decline in the Superior National Forest.Author(s): L. David Mech; Patrick D. Karns
Source: Research Paper NC-148. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Station: North Central Research Station
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DescriptionWhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) declined in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota between 1968 and 1974. In a 3,000 km2 area of the poorest habitat, deer were decimated. Contributing factors were severe winters, deteriorating habitat, and wolves. Wolves killed older deer, but insufficient fawns were available to replace them.
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CitationMech, L. David; Karns, Patrick D. 1977. Role of the wolf in a deer decline in the Superior National Forest. Research Paper NC-148. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
KeywordsCanis lupus, wolf, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer, predation, prey, Minnesota, winter severity
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