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    Author(s): Carol E. Johnston
    Date: 1999
    Source: Environmental Biology of Fishes.55: 21-30.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (260 KB)


    Approximately 20 percent of North American minnows are considered imperiled. The factors responsible for imperilment in this group are complex, but the relationship of spawning mode to conservation of North American minnows has not been explored. The author provides a summary of the spawning modes of imperiled North American minnows, discuss patterns between these modes and conservation status, and predict the spawning modes for several poorly known imperiled species. Of the 46 species of North American minnows that are imperiled, spawning modes are known for only 13 species. All spawning modes are represented in the imperiled group of minnows except mound-building and egg­-clustering, and with the exception of crevice-spawners and pit-ridge-builders, the percentage of imperiled minnows in each category of spawning mode is roughly proportional to the percentage of minnows in that category overall. Species with complex spawning modes, such as mound-building, pit-building, and egg-clustering, are among the most common fishes in North American streams. This pattern suggests that there is a relationship between parental care and success (lack of imperilment) in minnows. Spawning mode is an important consideration in the formulation of recovery plans and proactive conservation efforts.

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    Johnston, Carol E. 1999. The relationship of spawning mode to conservation of North American minnows (Cyprinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes.55: 21-30.

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