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    Author(s): J.H. Stoeckeler
    Date: 1967
    Source: Research Note NC-37. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
    Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (1000.87 KB)

    Description

    Culverts too small in diameter or poorly placed were major causes of timber flooding and tree damage. Placement problems were poor culvert slope, poor hydraulic approach, lack of gravel bedding, and too little soil covering the culverts.

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    Citation

    Stoeckeler, J.H. 1967. Size and Placement of Metal Culverts Critical on Peatland Woods Roads. Research Note NC-37. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station

    Keywords

    culverts, timber flooding, tree damage

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