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    All too often, unpaved forest access roads in the Southern Appalachian Mountains were located near streams and rivers, thereby contributing storm flow and sediment to the aquatic ecosystem.Landowners may not have the resources to reconstruct and relocate all these roads to protect water quality.However, simple techniques for redesign of storm water drainage structures can provide low-cost alternatives where the forest floor can absorb and filter runoff from roads.These practices could apply not just in the Appalachians but wherever storms and roads are placing sediment in the stream.Land managers and consultants who assist non-industrial forestland owners can use the principles for maintenance, reconstruction, or restoration of problem roads.

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    Swift, Lloyd W., Jr.; Burns, Richard G. 1999. The three R''s of roads: redesign, reconstruction, and restoration. Journal of Forestry.97(8) 41-44.

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