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    Author(s): D. S. Shriner
    Date: 1976
    Source: In: Dochinger, L. S.; Seliga, T. A., eds. Proceedings of the first international symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem; Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 919-925
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Northeastern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (266.77 KB)

    Description

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted in: 1) an 86% inhibition in telia production of Cronartium fusiforme on Quercus phellos; 2) a 66% inhibition of reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; 3) a 10% decrease in the severity of Uromyces phaseoli on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; and 4) an inhibition of Rhizobium nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max by an average of 73%. Effects on halo blight of kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola) depended upon the segment of the disease cycle in which the "rain" occurred: a) simulated rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants before inoculation stimulated disease development; b) suspension of inoculum in "rain" of pH 3.2 decreased inoculum potential; and c) "rain" of pH 3.2 applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development. Scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular waxes on leaves of Quercus phellos and Phaseolus vulgaris showed marked erosion of those surfaces by "rain" of pH 3.2, indicating possible influences on the structure and function of plant cuticles. These results suggest that the acidity of rain is a new parameter of environmental concern, and underline the need for study of the consequences of prolonged exposure of both agronomic and natural ecosystems to this stress factor.

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    Citation

    Shriner, D. S. 1976. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions. In: Dochinger, L. S.; Seliga, T. A., eds. Proceedings of the first international symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem; Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 919-925

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