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    Human disturbances have simplified the structure and composition of red pine forest, relative to historical conditions. A greater understanding of natureal disturbances and their role in generating complex stand structures, and their associated benefits, has increased interest in managing for mixed-species, multi-aged stands. We outline a conceptual approach for adding structural and complexity to commercial red pine mangagment and apply this approach in an operation-scale management experiment.

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    Palik, Brian; Zasada, John. 2003. An Ecological Context for Regenerating Mult-cohort, Mixed-species Red Pine Forests. Research Note NC-382. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station


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    Red pine, mixed-species silviculturem multi-cohort structure.

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