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    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has maintained the 'Port Information Network' (PIN) database for plant pests intercepted at the U.S. ports of entry. As of August 2001, PIN contained 6825 records of beetles (Coleoptera) in the family Scolytidae that had been intercepted during the years 1985-2000 from countries outside of North America. Of the 6825 scolytid interceptions, 2740 (40%) were identified to the species level, 2336 (34%) to only the genus level, and 1749 (26%) were identified to only the family level. Of the 49 identified scolytid genera, the 10 most common were Hypothenemus (821 interceptions), Pityogenes (662), Ips (544), Coccotrypes (520), Orthotomicus (461), Hylurgops (327), Hylurgus (266), Tomicus (194), Drycoetes (166), and Hylastes (142). The 10 most common identified species were Pityogenes chalcographus (565 interceptions), Orthotomicus erosus (385), Hylurgops palliatus (295), Ips typographus (286), Hylurgus ligniperda (217), Ips sexdentatus (157), Tomicus piniperda (155), Hylastes ater (75), Hypothenemus hampei (62), and Polygraphus poligraphus (48). Of these 10 species, H. palliatus, H. ligniperda, and T. piniperda are known to be established in the continental U.S. The scolytids were intercepted from 117 different countries; the top 12 countries were Italy (1090 interceptions), Germany (756), Spain (457), Mexico (425), Jamaica (398), Belgium (352), France (261), China (255), Russia (247), India (224), U.K. (151), and Portugal (150). The scolytids were intercepted in 35 U.S. states and 97 port cities. In general, there was a positive relationship between the number of scolytid interceptions from individual countries and the value of the imports from those countries. Overall, 73% of the scolytids were found in solid wood packing materials, 22% in food or plants, and 5% in other or unspecified materials. The products most commonly associated with scolytid-infested wood packing materials were tiles, marble, machinery, steel, parts, ironware, granite, aluminum, slate, and iron. The food products and plants that were commonly infested with scolytids included nutmeg, palms, coffee beans, kola nuts, and macadamia nuts.

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    Haack, Robert A. 2001. Intercepted Scolytidae (Coleoptera) at U.S. ports of entry: 1985-2000. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 6:253-282, 2001. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Netherlands. p. 253-282.


    bark beetle, exotic species, invasive species, quarantine, Scolytidae, trade

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