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    Today's forest managers are challenged by issues such as soil productivity, biodiversity, threatened and endangered species, and ecosystem sustainability; and ecosystem management has been proposed as a way to deal with them. The Society of American Foresters (1993) defines this term as keeping forest ecosystems functioning well over long periods of time in order to provide resilience to short-term stress and adaptation to long-term change.

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    Haack, Robert A.; Byler, James W. 1993. INSECTS & PATHOGENS Regulators of Forest Ecosystems. Journal of Forestry. Vol. 91 no. 9.:p. 32-37. (1993)


    Insects, pathogens, forest ecosystems, forest diversity, forest health

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