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    Estimates of the total number of exotic (non-indigenous) organisms that are now established in the United States(US), range from 4,500 (US Congress1993) to more than 50,000 (Pimentel et al. 2000), of which more than 400 are insects that feed on trees and shrubs and another 20 are disease organisms of trees(Haack and Byler 1993, Mattson et al. 1994, Niemela and Mattson 1996). Several of these exotic tree-feeding insects-- gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), hemlock woolly adelgid(Adelges tsugae), and beech scale(Cryptococcus fagisuga)-- have already greatly altered forested landscapes throughout the US (Ciesla 1993, Liebhotd et al. 1995, Morrell and Filip 1996, Wallner 1996, Mattson 1997). It is common for exotic insects to become pests in a new country because they often arrive without their normal suite of natural enemies.

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    Haack, Robert A.; Cavey, Joseph F. 2000. Insects intercepted on Solid Wood Packing Materials at United States Ports-of-Entry: 1985-1998. In: Quarantine pests, risk, for the foresty sector and their effects on foreign trade. Proceedings on CD-ROM of Silvotecna 14; 2000 june 27-28; Concepcion, Chile. CORMA, concepcion, Chile: 1-16.


    Scolytus multistriatus, Cryptococcus fagisuga, Adelges tsugae, Lymantria dispar, exotic orangisms, tree-feeding insects

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