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A comparison of leisure constraints among three outdoor recreation activities: whitewater rafting, canoeing and overnight horseback ridingAuthor(s): Gyan P. Nyaupane; Duarte B. Morais; Alan Graefe
Source: In: Schuster, Rudy, comp., ed. Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 152-157
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Northeastern Research Station
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DescriptionThe purpose of this study was to compare leisure constraints across three outdoor recreation activities, whitewater rafting, canoeing, and overnight horseback riding, in the context of the three-dimensional leisure constraints model proposed by Crawford and Godbey (1987). The sample consisted of 650 outdoor enthusiasts from 14 U.S. states who showed an interest in outdoor recreation but did not participate in any of these activities in the last two years. A confirmatory factor analysis partially supported the three-dimensional model across the three activities. The model, however, failed to incorporate some of the constraint items. Comparison of leisure constraints showed that the importance of constraints varied across the three activities. Overall, rafting had the most intrapersonal constraints, horseback riding had the most structural constraints, and canoeing had the least constraints overall. Item-wise comparisons revealed different results than the factor-wise comparison. The implications of these findings for further research and providers are discussed.
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CitationNyaupane, Gyan P.; Morais, Duarte B.; Graefe, Alan. 2003. A comparison of leisure constraints among three outdoor recreation activities: whitewater rafting, canoeing and overnight horseback riding. In: Schuster, Rudy, comp., ed. Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 152-157
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