Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): B. C. Grossman; M. A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey
    Date: 2003
    Source: Agroforestry Systems. Volume 69. 2003. pp. 3-10.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (930.4 KB)


    Increased planting of hard mast oak species in the Lower Missouri River floodplain is critical as natural regeneration of oak along the Upper Mississippi and Lower Missouri Rivers has been limited following major flood events in 1993 and 1995. Traditional planting methods have limited success due to frequent flood events, competition from faster growing vegetation and white-tailed deer herbivory. Results of early growth response of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.) seedlings in relation to initial acorn mass and size, and early rapid shoot growth for seedlings produced by containerized root production method (RPMTM), are presented. Containerized RPMTM seedlings grown in the greenhouse under optimal conditions demonstrate that seed size had no discernable impact on first-year root or shoot size. Seedling survival for the first two years and acorn production for the first three years after outplanting are presented, comparing use of containerized RPMTM swamp white oak seedlings to nursery stock. Flood tolerant precocious RPMTM oak seedlings in the floodplain provide a source of food for acorn-consuming wildlife ten to fifteen years sooner than oaks originating from natural regeneration, direct seeding or traditional bare root planting. Compared to bare root nursery stock that produced no acorns, some RPMTM swamp white oak seedlings averaged 4.3, 5.2, and 6.3 acorns/seedling in the first three years after fall outplanting.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Grossman, B. C.; Gold, M. A.; Dey, Daniel C. 2003. Restoration of hard mast species for wildlife in Missouri using precocious flowering oak in the Missouri River floodplain, USA. Agroforestry Systems. Volume 69. 2003. pp. 3-10.


    Acorn production, containerized seedlings, swamp white oak, RPM

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page