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Effectiveness of metaphoric facilitation techniques in a challenge course program on the empowerment of women participantsAuthor(s): Penny A. James; Lynn Anderson; Anderson Young
Source: In: Burns, R.; Robinson, K., comps. Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 2006 April 9-11; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 112-119.
Publication Series: General Technical Report - Proceedings
Station: Northern Research Station
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DescriptionResearch has shown support for the efficacy of differing processing techniques, particularly isomorphic framing. Feminist practitioners contend this methodology disempowers participants. Proponents argue this could result only from improper implementation. This experiment employed a facilitation technique (control, derived, isomorphic) between subjects design with time (pretest, acquisition, retention) as a repeated factor and utilized both quantitative and qualitative measures to further our understanding of the "process" of facilitation and transfer of learning in a women's challenge course program. It was hypothesized that all 47 women would benefit from participation but to varying degrees depending upon treatment group. Quantitative measures of locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem served as indicators of empowerment. The absence of significant quantitative findings is attributed to insufficient sample size. A manipulation check verified participants' understanding of metaphoric manipulations and provided qualitative data. This study provides tentative support for the appropriate use of both derived and isomorphic metaphoric techniques.
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CitationJames, Penny A.; Anderson, Lynn; Young, Anderson. 2007. Effectiveness of metaphoric facilitation techniques in a challenge course program on the empowerment of women participants. In: Burns, R.; Robinson, K., comps. Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 2006 April 9-11; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 112-119.
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