Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Penny A. James; Lynn Anderson; Anderson Young
    Date: 2007
    Source: In: Burns, R.; Robinson, K., comps. Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 2006 April 9-11; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 112-119.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report - Proceedings
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (115.13 KB)

    Description

    Research has shown support for the efficacy of differing processing techniques, particularly isomorphic framing. Feminist practitioners contend this methodology disempowers participants. Proponents argue this could result only from improper implementation. This experiment employed a facilitation technique (control, derived, isomorphic) between subjects design with time (pretest, acquisition, retention) as a repeated factor and utilized both quantitative and qualitative measures to further our understanding of the "process" of facilitation and transfer of learning in a women's challenge course program. It was hypothesized that all 47 women would benefit from participation but to varying degrees depending upon treatment group. Quantitative measures of locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem served as indicators of empowerment. The absence of significant quantitative findings is attributed to insufficient sample size. A manipulation check verified participants' understanding of metaphoric manipulations and provided qualitative data. This study provides tentative support for the appropriate use of both derived and isomorphic metaphoric techniques.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    James, Penny A.; Anderson, Lynn; Young, Anderson. 2007. Effectiveness of metaphoric facilitation techniques in a challenge course program on the empowerment of women participants. In: Burns, R.; Robinson, K., comps. Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 2006 April 9-11; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 112-119.

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page