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Spatial characteristics of topography, energy exchange, and forest cover in a central Appalachian watershedAuthor(s): Stanislaw J. Tajchman; Hailiang Fu; James N. Kochenderfer; Pan Chunshen
Source: In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L. C., ed. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV.: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 297-314
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Northeastern Research Station
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DescriptionSpatial variation of topography, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and forest stand in the central Appalachian watershed is described. The study area is the control watershed 4 (39"20'N, 79"49"W) located in the Fernow Experimental Forest at Parsons, West Virginia. The watershed encompasses an area of 39.2 ha, it has a southeast orientation, and the average slope inclination is 14º. The forest cover is ca. 85 years old and consists of upland oak and cove hardwoods. Topographic analysis was based on data for 432 triangular segments with an average area of 360 m², covering the whole watershed. Partial areas for defined slope and azimuth ranges and the distribution of both parameters are illustrated. Half of the watershed area has an azimuth between 90 and 150º (east facing slopes), and 65% of the area has slope inclination ranging from 10 to 20º. Net radiation (Rn) was computed for all terrain segments. Its distribution in the watershed is illustrated, and its average yearly sum for the whole watershed was 2.2 GJ m-2. Yearly sum of Rn of southwest facing slopes was 55% (lower sites) to 60% (upper sites) greater than that of east facing slopes. The average yearly precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (Et) of the watershed are 145.5 cm and 81.7 cm, respectively. A regression formula defines yearly sum of Et as a function of P and Rn of the watershed. Using this formula, average yearly sums of Et of all terrain segments were calculated. The distribution of the yearly average sum of Et in the watershed is illustrated; yearly Et of partial areas varied from ca. 60 to 85 cm. The average air-dry above ground biomass for 112 plots was 320.3 t ha-1. East facing slopes had the highest air-dry biomass (354 t ha-1) and the southwest facing slopes the lowest (224 t ha-1). Thirty-five species were recorded on the plots surveyed. The most frequent species were sugar maple (32.1% of the total number of trees, DBH > 5 cm), red maple (19.3%), American beech (9.7%), northern red oak (7.6%). black cherry (4.1%), sweet birch (3.6%), and chestnut oak (2.4%). Red oak had the highest total biomass (30.2% of the total for all species), followed by sugar maple (13.8%), black cherry (13.0%), red maple (9.9%), chestnut oak (6.9%), yellow-poplar (5.7%), American beech (4.7%), and white oak (4.5%).
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CitationTajchman, Stanislaw J.; Fu, Hailiang; Kochenderfer, James N.; Chunshen, Pan. 1995. Spatial characteristics of topography, energy exchange, and forest cover in a central Appalachian watershed. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L. C., ed. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV.: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 297-314
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