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    Author(s): Douglass F. Jacobs
    Date: 2003
    Source: FNR-212. Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources. West Lafayette, IN. 8 p.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (366.66 KB)


    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For that reason, the vast majority of hardwood plantations in the Central Hardwood Region are established using seedlings grown in nurseries. Production of quality seedlings that are likely to survive and grow well following field planting depends on proper coordination of a sequence of steps. Failure to pay attention to necessary details of any of these steps may result in poor-quality seedlings that limit reforestation success.
    This paper will provide the seedling user with a general overview of steps required to produce high quality hardwood seedlings. This publication will not serve as a guide for the nursery production manager, but should convey knowledge necessary for the hardwood seedling buyer to properly communicate with nursery personnel to ensure delivery of quality seedlings.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Jacobs, Douglass F. 2003. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings. FNR-212. Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources. West Lafayette, IN. 8 p.


    Hardwood seedlings, nursery production, hardwood seed, seedling quality.

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