Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

 Due to a lapse in federal funding, this USDA website will not be actively updated. Once funding has been reestablished, online operations will continue.


  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Randall S. MorinAndrew M. LiebholdPatrick C. TobinKurt W. GottschalkEugene Luzader
    Date: 2007
    Source: Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 726-736.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (1.29 MB)

    Description

    Beech bark disease (BBD) is an insect-fungus complex involving the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.) and one of two canker fungi. Beech scale was introduced to Halifax, Nova Scotia around 1890, presumably with the fungus Neonectria coccinea var. faginata Lohm. The disease has subsequently spread through a large portion of the range of beech. We used historical maps of the extent of the advancing BBD front (defined by presence of scale insects) in North America to estimate its rate of spread as 14.7 + 0.9 km/year. This estimate did not account for stochastic "jumps" by the scale insects to several disjunct locations; therefore, this rate is a conservative estimate. Comparison of the year of scale colonization with beech density did not suggest a relationship between the scale spread rate and beech density. Our analyses also indicated that BBD has invaded less than 30% of regions where beech is present, but it has invaded most of the regions where beech is a dominant component of stands. Despite regional increases in beech mortality following invasion, considerable amounts of live beech remain in invaded areas. Moreover, the volume of beech has increased in most areas, though generally at lower rates than that observed for associated tree species.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Morin, Randall S.; Liebhold, Andrew M.; Tobin, Patrick C.; Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Luzader, Eugene. 2007. Spread of beech bark disease in the eastern United States and its relationship to regional forest composition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 726-736.

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/12889