Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): S.C. Minocha; R. Minocha
    Date: 1999
    Source: In: Jain, S.M.; Gupta, P.K., eds. Somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Vol. 5. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 291-312.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.06 MB)


    Several attempts at the genetic improvement of tree species have been made, but in comparison with crop plants the efforts as well as the results have been rather limited. The most commonly used approaches have involved selection of superior genotypes from natural outbred populations, mutations, and intra- and inter-specific hybridization under controlled conditions. While the conventional methods have proven remarkably successful in yielding improved genotypes that could be stabilized by back crossing, the techniques of cloning, marker-aided selection, and genetic engineering when integrated with the conventional breeding programs, will dramatically improve genetic gains. Conventional methods of genetic improvement involve a recombination of pre-existing gene pools within a limited range of sexually compatible taxa. The process of backcrossing and selection takes several generations before a desired set of genes can be transferred to a selected species. Genetic manipulation through recombinant DNA permits us to cross the barriers of incompatibility, not only among species and genera but also among kingdoms. Genetic engineering provides new tools for mixing genetic information in plants from a vast pool of existing genes as well as genes designed by human intervention, i.e. synthetic gene sequences. Furthermore, undesirable genes in the plant genome can be selectively silenced in the target tissues by the antisense approach (Bourque, 1995; Lee and Douglas, 1997). Site-specific mutagenesis, homologous recombination, and the use of specific promoters provide a precise means of controlling specific gene expression and its manipulation to achieve optimal genetic improvements.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Minocha, S.C.; Minocha, R. 1999. Genetic transformation in conifers. In: Jain, S.M.; Gupta, P.K., eds. Somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Vol. 5. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 291-312.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page