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    The aliphatic amines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are present in all living organisms. Since the demonstration of "an essential nutritional function" for putrescine in the bacterium Hemophilus parainfluenzae (Herbst and Snell 1948), polyamines have attracted a great deal of attention from workers in diverse fields of the life sciences. The first reports of the existence of putrescine in plants date back to 1911 (see Smith 1991 for a historical summary).

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    Minocha, S.C.; Minocha, R. 1995. Role of polyamines in somatic embryogenesis. In: Bajaj, Yps, ed. Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed, Vol. 30. London, UK: Springer-Verlag Publishers: 53-70.

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