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    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no significant change in putrescine. This led to a several-fold increase in spermidine/putrescine ratios during development of both types of embryos. Cell cultures of plant-forming and non-plantforming lines derived from the same clone and growing on proliferation (maintenance) medium differed significantly in their polyamine levels. Mature, cotyledonary stage somatic embryos capable of germination and formation of plants could be distinguished by their higher spermidine/putrescine ratios from abnormal cotyledonary stage somatic embryos which were incapable of forming plants.

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    Minocha, Rakesh; Smith, Dale R.; Reeves, Cathie; Steele, Kevin D.; Minocha, Subhash C. 1999. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata. Physiologia Plantarum. 105: 155-164.

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