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    We examined the distribution of ground-flora species (herbaceous and woody species<1 mtall) across riparian areas of northeasternWisconsin in an effort to understand how hierarchical landscape properties, such as the physiographic system (ground moraine and outwash plain), valley system (constrained and unconstrained), and valley floor landforms influence distribution patterns of ground-flora species and functional plant guilds across riparian areas of small streams and rivers in a glacial landscape. A total of 162 species were recorded on 417 (1 m2) plots stratified by four different valley types that reflect the dominant physiographic system and valley system (constrained ground moraine, constrained outwash plain, unconstrained ground moraine, unconstrained outwash plain) and transverse geomorphic structure (valley floor landforms including floodplains, terraces, slopes, and adjacent uplands).

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    Goebel, P. Charles; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Palik, Brian J. 2006. Landscape hierarchies influence riparian ground-flora communities in Wisconsin, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 230: 43-54.


    riparian areas, valley floor landforms, floodplains, streamside forests, diversity, ordination, Lake States

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