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    Author(s): Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston
    Date: 2007
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-20. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 34 p.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (699.89 KB)


    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) are the only source of information available that documents plant injury from air pollution using consistent protocols. This document introduces the FIA ozone indicator and describes the sampling and estimation procedures of the national biomonitoring program. We provide background material on ozone, examples of bioindicator summary statistics, a description of spatial interpolation, and methods to estimate status and change in forested areas with respect to the occurrence of ozone injury from ambient ozone concentrations. The goal is to provide guidance to analysts and researchers on ways to incorporate ozone bioindicator data into reports and research studies. Periodic recommendations to analysts on improved analytical techniques will be made. Analysts are encouraged to consult the companion user guide for additional guidance on interpreting the ozone biomonitoring data and reporting on the issue of ozone and forest health for the FIA program.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Smith, Gretchen C,; Smith, William D.; Coulston, John W. 2007. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-20. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 34 p.


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    air quality, bioindicator species, biomonitoring, forest health, kriging, ozone, ozone sensitive, risk assessment, spatial interpolation

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