Forest landscape models have become important tools for understanding large-scale and long-term landscape (spatial) processes such as climate change, fire, windthrow, seed dispersal, insect outbreak, disease propagation, forest harvest, and fuel treatment, because controlled field experiments designed to study the effects of these processes are often not possible (Shifley et al., 2006). In the past decade and a half, significant advances in theory and technology have been incorporated into the development of forest landscape models (Mladenoff and Baker, 1999; Gardner and Urban, 2003; Keane et al., 2004; Brown et al., 2006).
He, Hong S.; Keane, Robert E.; Iverson, Louis R. 2008. Forest landscape models, a tool for understanding the effect of the large-scale and long-term landscape processes. Forest Ecology and Management. 254: 371-374.