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    Resource sustainability requires a thorough understanding of the influence of forest management programs on the conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations. To observe how differences in forest structure affect the genetic structure of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), we evaluated six eastern white pine sites across the 234000 acre (1 acre =0.4046856 ha) Menominee Indian Reservation in northeastern Wisconsin (45?00?N, 88?45'W). The six sites sampled for nuclear and chloroplast DNA microsatellite markers were of contrasting densities and managed by different management systems: shelterwood, pine release, plantation, and old growth. Three of the sites had natural regeneration, which was also sampled. Mean values of spatial genetic autocorrelation were positive in all mature populations and variable; the strongest spatial structuring of genes occurred in the least disturbed old-growth site (I - E(I) = 0.031). Genetic structuring at the historical old-growth site fit the isolation-by-distance model for a neighborhood size of 130 individuals. Significant inbreeding occurred in five populations, but the seedling or sapling populations as a group (f = 0.088) are significantly less inbred than the local mature populations (f = 0.197). The increase in heterozygosity between generations was attributed to harvesting having reduced the spatial genetic structure of the mature trees.

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    Marquardt, Paula E.; Echt, Craig S.; Epperson, Bryan K.; Pubanz, Dan M. 2007. Genetic structure, diversity, and inbreeding of eastern white pine under different management conditions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 37: 2652-2662.

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