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    A 35-year-old longleaf pine stand exhibited trees in various stages of decline. A study was conducted to determine root-infecting fungi and other abnormalities associated with varying degrees of crown symptoms. A four-class crown symptom rating system was devised according to ascending symptom severity. Leptographium procerum and L. terebrantis were significantly associated with increasing crown symptom severity. Heterobasidion annosum was also isolated in higher frequency as crown symptoms increased. Also, evidence of insects on roots increased as did amount of resinosis observed. Edaphic and silvicultural factors may interact with these pathogens and insects to pose a pathological limitation on longer-term management objectives. Further research is needed to determine relationships among various edaphic, silvicultural, and biological factors associated with the decline syndrome on this site.

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    Otrosina, William J.; Bannwart, Diane; Roncadori, Ronald W. 1999. Root-infecting fungi associated with a decline of longleaf pine in the southeastern United States. Plant and Soil. 217: 145-150.

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