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    Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans drafted for the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in Wisconsin. We analyzed 20 response variables representing changes in landscape characteristics that relate to eight timber and wildlife management objectives. AMANOVA showed significant variation in the response variables among the alternative management plans. For most (16 out of 20) response variables, plans ranked either directly or inversely to the extent of even-aged management. The amount of hemlock on the landscape had a surprising positive relationship with even-aged management because hemlock is never cut, even in a clear cut. Our results also show that multiple management objectives can create conflicts related to the amount and arrangement of management activities. For example, American marten and ruffed grouse habitat are maintained by mutually exclusive activities. Our approach demonstrates a way to evaluate alternative management plans and assess if they are likely to meet their stated, multiple objectives.

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    Zollner, Patrick A.; Roberts, L. Jay; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.; Radeloff, Volker. 2008. Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 254: 429-444.


    American marten, ecosystem properties, even-aged management, forest planning, Kirtland's warbler, landscape pattern, LANDIS, ruffed grouse, simulation model

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