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    The injuries described in this publication sometimes mimic those caused by animals, insects, and diseases. Some environmental and management-related ijuries can be treated, but it is best to prevent their recurrence.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Seifert, John; Woeste, Keith. 2005. Environmental and management injury in hardwood tree plantations. FNR-217. Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources. West Lafayette, IN. 8 p.


    Herbicide injury, soil compaction, frost damage, frost cracks, sunscald, flood, lightning, wind damage, pruning injury, tractor blight, treee-fall injury, drought, unexplained seedling injury.

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