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    Author(s): Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones
    Date: 1989
    Source: Agric. Handb. 678. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 88 p.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northeastern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (23.87 MB)


    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J.A. Putnam, and R.D. Carpenter, 1963.

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    Carpenter, Roswell D.; Sonderman , David L.; Rast, Everette D.; Jones, Martin J. 1989. Defects in hardwood timber. Agric. Handb. 678. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 88 p.


    hardwood timber, timber quality, defects, scalable defects, grade defects, tree grades, log grades, stand evaluation

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