Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Kevin E. Percy; Caroline S. Awmack; Richard L. Lindroth; Mark E. Kubiske; Brian J. Kopper; J. G. Isebrands; Kurt S. Pregitzer; George R. Hendrey; Richard E. Dickson; Donald R. Zak; Elina Oksanen; Jaak Sober; Richard Harrington; David F. Karnosky
    Date: 2002
    Source: Nature 420:403-407
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (328.23 KB)


    Human activity causes increasing background concentrations of the greenhouse gases C02 and O3. Increased levels of C02 can be found in all terrestrial ecosystems. Damaging O3 concentrations currently occur over 29% of the world's temperate and subpolar forests but are predicted to affect fully 60% by 2100 (ref. 3). Although individual effects of C02 and O3, on vegetation have been widely investigated, very little is known about their interaction, and long-term studies on mature trees and higher trophic levels are extremely rare. Here we present evidence from the most widely distributed North American tree species, Populus tremuloides, showing that C02 and O3, singly and in combination, affected productivity, physical and chemical leaf defences and, because of changes in plant quality, insect and disease populations. Our data show that feedbacks to plant growth from changes induced by C02 and O3 in plant quality and pest performance are likely. Assessments of global change effects on forest ecosystems must therefore consider the interacting effects of C02 and O3 on plant performance, as well as the implications of increased pest activity.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Percy, Kevin E.; Awmack, Caroline S.; Lindroth, Richard L.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Kopper, Brian J.; Isebrands, J. G.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Hendrey, George R.; Dickson, Richard E.; Zak, Donald R.; Oksanen, Elina; Sober, Jaak; Harrington, Richard; Karnosky, David F. 2002. Altered performance of forest pests under atmospheres enriched by C02 and O3. Nature 420:403-407

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page