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    The performance of planted northern red oak (Quercus rubra, L.), black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), with and without tree shelters, was evaluated 10 yr after planting. Northern red oak was planted in three harvested forest openings, and black walnut and green ash were planted in a cultivated field. Survival of northern red oak with tree shelters was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than northern red oak without shelters only for year 3. Survival differences between tree shelter treatments for black walnut and green ash were not significant. However, overall survival of green ash declined rapidly after year 5. Trees began to exit the 120-cm-tall shelters after 2 yr, but not in large numbers until the fourth year. Sheltered oaks were significantly taller than unsheltered oaks at year 10, and sheltered oaks had more height growth than unsheltered oaks at year 5, but not at year 10. Except for year 1, neither height nor height growth for black walnut was significantly different between tree shelter treatments. Green ash was taller and had more height growth with shelters than without shelters in year 1, but had more height growth without shelters than with shelters in year 5. Diameter growth at breast height did not differ between treatments for any of the three species. The greater height of sheltered northern red oaks compared to unsheltered northern red oaks could increase the opportunity of sheltered oaks to achieve dominant and codominant positions in the developing stands.

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    Ponder, Felix, Jr. 2003. Ten-Year Results of Tree Shelters on Survival and Growth of Planted Hardwoods. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 20(3):104-108


    Artificial regeneration, green ash, black walnut, northern red oak, tree tubes

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