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    Author(s): Martin J. Jennings; Edward E. Emmons; Gene R. Hatzenbeler; Clayton Edwards; Michael A. Bozek
    Date: 2003
    Source: Lakes and Reservoir Management 19(3):272-279
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.07 MB)


    We measured differences in nearshore littoral zone habitat among lakes with different amounts of residential development and different patterns of watershed land use. Sampling stations were located at randomly selected sites within the nearshore littoral zone of limnologically similar lakes. An index of development density (based on counts of residential structures) and watershed cover types detected by satellite imagery summarized human influence in the riparian zone and watershed. To compare effects of development at local sites to effects of cumulative development density (structures/km shoreline), we used analysis of covariance. Quantity of woody debris, emergent vegetation and floating vegetation decreased at developed sites and in lakes with greater cumulative lakeshore development density. Littoral sediments contained more fine particles at developed sites and in lakes with greater development density. Sediment composition, quantity of vegetation, and woody debris were weakly associated with differences in watershed land use. Cumulative changes to watersheds and riparian zones are associated with measurable differences in littoral habitat that may not be detectable at smaller scales. For effective conservation, regulatory programs should consider the cumulative effects of development and land use on aquatic systems.

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    Jennings, Martin J.; Emmons, Edward E.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Edwards, Clayton; Bozek, Michael A. 2003. Is Littoral Habitat Affected by Residential Development and Land Use in Watersheds of Wisconsin Lakes?. Lakes and Reservoir Management 19(3):272-279


    aquatic habitat, lakes, land use, development, spatial scale, macrophyres, substrate, woody debris

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