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    Author(s): Walter C. ShortleKevin T. SmithRakesh Minocha; Subhash Minocha; Philip M. Wargo; Kristina A. Vogt
    Date: 2000
    Source: In: Mickler, Robert A.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Hom, John, eds. Responses of northern U.S. forests to environmental change. Ecological studies 139. New York: Springer-Verlag: 229-274.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (3.08 MB)

    Description

    A tree is a large, long-lived, perennial, compartmented, woody, shedding, walling plant. This definition is based on new tree biology concepts (Shigo, 1986a,b, 1991) and explains much about how mature trees function through their unique structure. When the tree begins its life, it is mostly leaf in mass (Fig. 7.la). As a tree grows in stature, it becomes mostly stem in mass and the foliage represents only a few percent of the total mass.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash; Wargo, Philip M.; Vogt, Kristina A. 2000. Tree health and physiology in a changing environment. In: Mickler, Robert A.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Hom, John, eds. Responses of northern U.S. forests to environmental change. Ecological studies 139. New York: Springer-Verlag: 229-274.

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