Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Lynn M. Roovers; Stephen R. Shifley
    Date: 2003
    Source: Natural Areas Journal 23(3):238-246
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.22 MB)


    A relict population of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) occurs at White Pine Hollow State Preserve in northeastern Iowa, USA. White pine was not self-replacing in our study plots here, and without disturbances that alter the successional trend the species will eventually disappear from the flat to rolling uplands where most pines currently occur. Some natural pine reproduction occurs on steep slopes. Live tree density was 967 trees ha-1, and mean basal area was 33 m2 ha-1. Basal area was significantly greater on plots with white pine. Without recruitment of of pine into the overstory, these plots will experience declines in basal area. The diameter distribution of all live trees had a negative exponential shape. However, the distribution for white pine, white oak (Quercus alba L.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were unimodal, with no or few trees in the smaller size classes. Compared to a previous study at White Pine Hollow, there has been a dramatic decrease in the density of white pine and white oak trees, and an increase in sugar maple (Acer Saccharum Marsh.). Mean density of standing dead trees was 95 trees ha-1 with basal area 4 m2 ha-1. Overall, the number of standing dead trees by diameter class was 10% that of live trees, but this relationship did not hold true for individual species. For white pine and the oaks, the ratio of dead to live trees was much greater than average for all species combined. The mean volume of downed wood was 66 m2 ha-1.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Roovers, Lynn M.; Shifley, Stephen R. 2003. Composition, Structure, and Tree Reproduction at White Pine Hollow, Iowa, USA: A Remnant Old-Growth Forest. Natural Areas Journal 23(3):238-246


    old-growth forest, Pinus strobus L., succession, coarse woody debris, tree cavities

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page