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    Author(s): Gary W. Miller
    Date: 1998
    Source: In: Forestry coexisting with wild animals: international symposium on prevention from deer and other mammal damages to planted young trees; 1997 December 3; Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Japan International Forestry Promotion Center: 29-37; 93-97. (In Japanese and English).
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (1.06 MB)

    Description

    This report summarizes the basic silvicultural problems associated with regenerating commercial hardwood (broadleaf) species in the eastern United States and includes a review of current methods used to reduce the impact of deer browsing. The following topics are discussed: 1) the biological requirements and regeneration mechanism associated with several important tree species in the region, 2) the specific problem of regenerating northern red oak (Quercus rubra) or high-quality growing sites, 3) the general problems resulting from excessive deer browsing and practical methods used to reduce the impact of deer browsing, and 4) recent results from experimental and commercial use of plastic tree shelters for regenerating northern red oak.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Miller, Gary W. 1998. Tree shelters and other methods for reducing deer damage to hardwood regeneration in the eastern United States. In: Forestry coexisting with wild animals: international symposium on prevention from deer and other mammal damages to planted young trees; 1997 December 3; Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Japan International Forestry Promotion Center: 29-37; 93-97. (In Japanese and English).

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