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    Author(s): Michael A. Tarrant; H. Ken Cordell; Tamela L. Kibler
    Date: 1997
    Source: Leisure Sciences, 19:97-112, 1997
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (495 KB)


    The authors examined the interations of 3 situational vairiables (activity type, location, and encounter type) on 3 predictors of perceived crowding (perceived, preferred, and tolerable encounter levels.) A total of 310 kayakers and canoers and 356 fagters completed on-site and mail-back surveys regarding their trip on the Nantahala River in North Carolina during Summer 1994. A multiple regression analysis showed that preferred and perceived encounters were more effective predictors of perceived crowding that tolerable encounter levels, but the relative effect of these measures depended on the situational context. Respondents' ability to specify tolerable encounter levels depended on their level of specialization. Any attempt to establish use limits must carefully consider all the aspects of the river use situation and recognize that multiple capacities may be related to location, activity, and type of use to be encountered.

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    Tarrant, Michael A.; Cordell, H. Ken; Kibler, Tamela L. 1997. Measuring Perceived Crowding for High-Density River Recreation: The Effects of Situational Conditions and Personal Factors. Leisure Sciences, 19:97-112, 1997


    preferred encounters, perceived encounters, tolerable encounters, social carrying capacities, use specialization

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