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    Author(s): James N. Kochenderfer; W.Mark Ford
    Date: 2008
    Source: Res. Pap. NRS-5. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 8 p.
    Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (924.96 KB)


    We evaluated the efficacy of exclusion cages and commercially available repellants in deterring white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and chestnut oak (Q. montana) stump sprouts and planted red oak seedlings following a commercial clearcut harvest in West Virginia. Our treatments included application of two repellants (Deer Away? and Plantskydd?) for cut stumps and seedlings and wire cages for cut stumps or 1.5-m-tall tree shelters for seedlings. Regardless of treatment, the probability of a stump sprout reaching 1.5 m for both species declined as residual stump diameter increased. The continuous protection from browsing coupled with low material costs makes the use of wire cages around cut stumps a potential alternative to the use of deer repellants or artificial seedling establishment to enhance and maintain oak following regeneration harvests.

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    Kochenderfer, James N.; Ford, W.Mark. 2008. Utility of wire cages, tree shelters, and repellants to minimize herbivory to oak by white-tailed deer. Res. Pap. NRS-5. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 8 p.


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    Appalachians, deer repellants, herbivory, Quercus rubra, Quercus montana, tree shelters, wire cages

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