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Ring shake in eastern hemlock: frequency and relationship to tree attributes

Author(s):

John E. Baumgras
David L. Sonderman

Year:

2000

Publication type:

General Technical Report (GTR)

Primary Station(s):

Northern Research Station

Historical Station(s):

Northeastern Research Station

Source:

In: McManus, Katherine A.; Shields, Kathleen S.; Souto, Dennis R., eds. Proceedings: Symposium on sustainable management of hemlock ecosystems in eastern North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-267. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 156-160.

Description

Ring shake is a barrier to improved utilization of eastern hemlock, an important component of the total softwood timber resource in the Eastern United States and Canada. Ring shake is the lengthwise separation of wood that occurs between and parallel to growth rings, diminishing lumber yields and values. Evaluating the potential for ring shake is essential to improving estimates of tree and stand volume and value, and identifying forest management practices that could minimize the occurrence of ring shake. To assess the incidence and extent of ring shake in eastern hemlock, we sampled 377 trees containing 1,247 sawlogs from sites in Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. Results include relative frequencies of trees and logs with ring shake detected in dry and green lumber. Relationships between tree attributes and the occurrence of ring shake in dry and green lumber also are presented.

Citation

Baumgras, John E.; Sendak, Paul E.; Sonderman, David L. 2000. Ring shake in eastern hemlock: frequency and relationship to tree attributes. In: McManus, Katherine A.; Shields, Kathleen S.; Souto, Dennis R., eds. Proceedings: Symposium on sustainable management of hemlock ecosystems in eastern North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-267. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 156-160.

Publication Notes

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  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/14696