Skip to Main Content
Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchardsAuthor(s): David L. Bramlett
Source: In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-50. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 17-25
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: North Central Research Station
PDF: Download Publication (131.26 KB)
DescriptionSeed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the ratio of extracted seeds per cone to the total seeds; and germination efficiency (GE), the ratio of germinated seeds per cone to the filled seeds. The product of these four efficiency values is the overall seed orchard to nursery efficiency (SO-NE). With SO-NE, the orchard manager can compare the actual yield of seedlings produced from the orchard to the maximum biological potential of a given flower crop to produce viable seeds. The two approaches to increasing production of seed orchards are to increase flower production and to increase CE, SE, EE, or GE values. Computation of efficiency values pinpoints major types of seed losses and shows where corrective actions should be concentrated.
- Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
- During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
- Please contact Sharon Hobrla, firstname.lastname@example.org if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationBramlett, David L. 1977. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-50. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 17-25
- Seed production in the first eight years and frequency of natural selfing in a simulated jack pine seedling seed orchard
- Nonlethal Thrips Damage to Slash Pine Flowers Reduces Seed Yields
- Guidelines for producing quality longleaf pine seeds
XML: View XML